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Child Custody and Access Introduction

One of the most significant concerns for parents, if not THE most significant concern, on separation is what will happen with the children.  Where will the child live? Who is going to make decisions for the child regarding their education, religion, or medical care? How much time will each partner spend with the children?

These questions are related to custody and access and this post will focus on those issues alone.  Child support issues are covered in our previous post here.

There are two different statutes dealing with custody and access in Ontario: the Divorce Act for married spouses, and the Children’s Law Reform Act (“CLRA”) for non-married and married spouses (see our post on married vs. Common law spouses for details on the difference between both types of relationships).

But what is the difference between custody and access? Are they not the same thing?

The person who is responsible for the child on a daily basis and makes daily decisions for the child is said to have custody of the child.  This can include decisions on things like: education, religion, and health care.  It does NOT automatically mean which parent the child will live with, although generally the person with sole custody is the parent with whom the child resides.

Access on the other hand is the ability to visit and ask for information regarding the child’s health, education, religion and general welfare.

When making a decision regarding custody and access, the courts will consider the “Best interests of the Child”, see s. 24(2) of the CLRA.  These include:

(a) the love, affection and emotional ties between the child and,

(i) each person, including a parent or grandparent, entitled to or claiming custody of or access to the child,

(ii) other members of the child’s family who reside with the child, and

(iii) persons involved in the child’s care and upbringing;

(b) the child’s views and preferences, if they can reasonably be ascertained;

(c) the length of time the child has lived in a stable home environment;

(d) the ability and willingness of each person applying for custody of the child to provide the child with guidance and education, the necessaries of life and any special needs of the child;

(e) the plan proposed by each person applying for custody of or access to the child for the child’s care and upbringing;

(f) the permanence and stability of the family unit with which it is proposed that the child will live;

(g) the ability of each person applying for custody of or access to the child to act as a parent; and

(h) any familial relationship between the child and each person who is a party to the application.

With these two terms defined and a background on the best interests of the child, we can approach what types of custody and access there are.

 

Custody

S.20(1)  of the CLRA provides that both parents have equal entitlement to custody of the children. However this entitlement is limited by s.20(4) of the CLRA.  What this means is that if the child resides with one spouse and you decide to move out, you could effectively be giving away custody rights to your child.  However you do not lose access rights.

Parenting decisions post separation can be approached in multiple ways.  These can include the following:

Joint Custody
With this, both parents must agree on major decisions regarding the child.  This arrangement requires that both parents co-operate well together to ensure the children are raised well and it works best when both parents have the same values and ideals on how to raise the children.  The parents may even choose to divide the decision making responsibilities.  For example, one parent may take the responsibility regarding education decisions while the other makes decisions regarding health care.

Sole Custody
One parent makes all the important decisions regarding the child.  They may have to communicate with the other parent about the decisions, but ultimately the parent with sole custody does not need the consent of the other parent.  Usually, if there is sole custody the other parent has access.

Split Custody
Each parent has sole custody of one or more children.  This is a rare solution for custody as courts generally do not like to separate siblings.  This type of custody is usually provided where the children are older and can express their opinions about which parent they want to live with.  With that, if the court determines that this opinion of the child should be given considerable weight, they may then grant split custody.

Shared Custody
This term is usually confused with joint custody.  This type of custody is actually an access arrangement and does not indicate which parent has legal decision making power, although custody arrangements can be included here (which helps contribute to the confusion).  You can have shared custody whether or not you have joint custody.  With shared custody, both parents have the child for at least 40% of the time.  Essentially, the child’s time is split evenly between the parents.  This type of arrangement can also impact how much child support is to be paid (see child support post for more details).

Access

Under the s. 20(5) of the CLRA parents are entitled to visit and be visited by the child.  This also includes the right to make inquiries and be given information about the child’s health, education, and welfare.

Types of access include the following.

Reasonable Access – sometimes called liberal or generous
If parents are able to co-operate, then access can be left open and flexible.  This type of access is heavily customizable as both parents simply communicate and negotiate access on an on-going basis as they see fit.

Fixed or specified Access
This will include a detailed access schedule with dates and times for access to be exercised.  This can cover things such as: holidays, long weekends, birthdays and so on.  You can also identify where access will take place and who will pick up and drop off the children.

Supervised Access
This may be required if one of the parents demonstrates the following behaviour:

  1. Substance Abuse;
  2. Domestic Violence;
  3. Parental Alienation.

The person supervising the access can be a relative, friend, social worker, worker at a supervised access centre, or even a Children’s Aid worker.  This kind of access is generally only done on a temporary basis.  If it’s determined that the visits are benefiting the child and the parents respect the terms of the access orders, the access can progress to unsupervised access and can also gradually increase over time.

No Access
This is an extreme result where a parent might not be able to access the child at all.  An order for no access can result where there is serious neglect of the child, abuse, or if the child’s safety cannot be protected even if supervised.

Other custody and access issues

A parent cannot refuse access to the other parent unless there is a court order to that effect.  If a parent does refuse access to another without proper justification, that parent may be found in contempt of court.  If that behaviour continues, the parent refusing access could suffer serious ramifications.

Child support and access are two different things.  A parent cannot be denied access if support is not paid, and support would likely still need to be paid even if there is no access.  It is also possible for a non-parent to be given custody or access, but this must be determined in accordance with the Best Interests of the Child.

Parents have the ability to outline their desires in a Parenting Plan which can be included in a separation agreement.  See our post on separation agreements to learn more.

Separation and Divorce

Clients often contact our office inquiring whether we can assist with their divorce. In these cases, one of the first questions I always ask is how long they have been separated for.  If they tell me they’ve only been separated for a few months I inform them that they can’t get divorced unless one of the following things occurs:

The Divorce Act (“DA”) requires that there be a “breakdown of the marriage” under s. 8(2).

This means that:

  1. You live separate and apart for one year;
  2. The other spouse has committed adultery; or
  3. One spouse has treated the other with physical or mental cruelty.

If you meet one of the criteria above then you can get a divorce. If you are separated, you can start an application for divorce at any time, but the court will not grant you the divorce until you have been separated for one full year.  The DA even has a section on how to determine that period of separation under s. 8(3) The basic requirements are that the spouses have an intention to separate and that they do not try to reconcile their relationship for more than 90 days.

Keep in mind that divorce only applies to married spouses; if you are common law then you only need to be separated in order to effectively terminate the relationship. See our previous blog post covering the difference between common law and married spouses.

Even if you start the divorce application, the divorce does not actually take effect until 31 days after a Judge provides a judgment granting the Divorce (see s. 12(1) of the DA).  Furthermore, s. 11(1)(b) of the DA states that a divorce will not be granted until the court is satisfied that reasonable arrangements have been made to support the children of the marriage.

A divorce or annulment is the only way to end a marriage.

You won’t NEED any formal documentation to show that you are separated, however it is HIGHLY recommended that you get a separation agreement drafted to protect your interests. http://www.rabideaulaw.ca/separation-agreements-an-overview/

Adultery and Abuse

The “separated for a year” rule does not apply if there is a breakdown of the marriage resulting from adultery or abuse. If a person is relying on adultery or abuse as a reason for the breakdown of marriage, s. 11(1) of the DA makes it clear that there can be no collusion, condonation, or connivance on the part of the spouse bringing the application.

This means that the spouse bringing the application for divorce cannot accept the behaviour or conspire to orchestrate the adultery or abuse. Also, the spouse committing the adultery cannot use it as a reason for the breakdown of the marriage.  However, the court will grant the divorce if it is their opinion that the public interest would be better served by granting the divorce.

The DA also provides a definition for collusion.  Here, collusion means an action taken directly or indirectly by a spouse applying for divorce to subvert the administration of justice.  This includes an agreement or conspiracy to fabricate, or suppress evidence to deceive the court (see s. 11(4) of the DA).

The Separation – Living Separate and Apart

In order to be separated, courts need to see that you are living “separate and apart”.

But what does this mean exactly?

There are a few factors that courts will consider regarding whether or not two persons are actually separated. Simply saying you’re separated may not be enough.

Factors courts will consider to determine if you are separated include the following (see paragraphs 37-47 of T.R. v A. K, 2015 ONSC 6272)

  • Is there a physical separation, (Note that this doesn’t have to mean spouses live in separate houses)
  • An intent of ending the marriage/relationship
  • Absence of sexual relations
  • Level of communication between the spouses
  • Are there joint social activities
  • Meal patterns
  • What chores are being performed between them
  • How do others view their relationship

Keep in mind that this is not an exhaustive list as courts can consider other factors.  Also, you don’t need to meet all of these factors in order to be considered separated.  What needs to occur is that courts see a physical separation and that you both are seeking to pull out of the marriage (or common law relationship). What is important is the INTENTION to separate.

Does the date of separation matter?

The actual separation date or valuation date as defined in s. 4(1) of the Family Law Act is an essential part of the separation process.  The valuation date is the date from which all values related to property and support are calculated from.  As an example, a valuation date in the winter versus one in the spring or summer could affect the value of the matrimonial home and how much is to be distributed between the parties.  This is why it is crucial to seek out a family lawyer to advise you of your rights and responsibilities to ensure that you and your family are properly protected.

Keep an eye out for future blog posts discussing issues related to property.

Common Law vs. Marriage

Common Law and Marriage are often confused when it comes to the division of property and other rights and obligations upon separation. In order to know what you’re entitled to, it’s important to understand the distinction between these two terms so you can create the best plan for your future.

What may be confusing to some is the fact that the Family Law Act (“FLA”) has two definitions for spouse and that these two types of spouses are treated very differently upon separation.

Definition of Spouse in Ontario

Keep note that the definition of spouse and the rights that flow from that definition differ from province to province. This post is restricted to the definition of spouses and their rights in Ontario.

The first type of spouse is defined in s. 1(1) of the FLA and it means either of two persons who:

  1. Are married to each other, or
  2. Have together entered into a marriage that is voidable or void and in good faith

This includes marriages from anywhere else in the world.

The second type of spouse is found in s. 29 of the FLA.

Here, spouse means any spouse as defined in s. 1(1) (the married spouses) AND anyone that meets the following criteria:

Persons who are NOT married to each and have cohabited:

  1. Continuously for a period of not less than three years; or
  2. In a relationship of some permanence, if they are the parents of a child.

What is also important here is the part that says “cohabited continuously.” Consider the following example for a couple with no children:

  • Partners live together for 2 years starting January 1, 2015;
  • They then live apart for 7 months from January 1, 2017 to August 1, 2017;
  • Then they start living together for 5 more months starting August 2, 2017.
Start of cohabitation – 2 years Break in cohabitation – 7 months Restart of cohabitation – 5 months End of three years
January 1, 2015 January 1, 2017 to August 1, 2017 August 2, 2017 January 1, 2018

 

In this example, they would not meet the criteria of common law spouse as defined in the FLA.  They would have to live together for 3 more uninterrupted years from August 2, 2017 to August 1, 2020 to be considered common law spouses.

However, if this couple had children, then they would likely be considered common law.

How do these separate definitions of spouse affect me?

These two definitions mean that there are different property rights for a married spouse and a common law spouse. Under the FLA, married spouses have automatic property rights in addition to support rights.  This means they have rights to an equalization payment, property such as the pension, the matrimonial home, support payments, and intestacy rights.

Common law spouses on the other hand, only have automatic rights to spousal support on separation under s. 29 of the FLA. This comes as a shock to some clients as they believe that simply living in the home is enough to guarantee rights to the home or any other shared property. This is only true in common law where both parties share property as joint tenants or tenants in common.

However, spousal support is not guaranteed like child support is. Spousal support is granted according to various factors, one of which is need (see s. 30 of the FLA).

Now that doesn’t mean a common law spouse can never claim rights to property out of the common law relationship and succeed; it just means they will have to seek one of the following alternative remedies;

  1. Unjust Enrichment;
  2. Quantum Meruit;
  3. Constructive trust; or
  4. Resulting trust.

These types of remedies are called “equitable claims” and usually involve litigating the matter in court in order to successfully receive the remedy.

Contact Rabideau Law’s caring and experienced staff for a consultation to see what legal options are available in your specific situation.